Weights and measures

Although you must use metric measurements in the England, Scotaland or Wales (grams, kilograms, millilitres or litres), it is the law when selling package and loose goods, many people think in the older imperial system (ounces, pounds, inches and pints). Northern Ireland is different. The good news is that you can still buy milk, beer and cider in pints and if you deal in precious metals you can use troy ounces. If you want to include the imperial measurement on your packaging you can do but it needs to be less noticable than the metric.

On this page you can convert all sorts on measurements from metric to imperial and back again. Enter the amount in the highlighted box and the click on the = sign to convert.

Temperature

Temperature

The temperature scales measure the heat present in a substance or object.

centigrade fahrenheit
fahrenheit centigrade

Five interesting temperature facts

Sound moves slower at lower temperatures and faster at higher temperatures. At -25°C sounds moved at just 315 metres per second but at +35°C sounds moves at 351 metres per second.

Temperatures are not only measured in centigrade and fahrenheit. There are also the scales of Kelvin, Rankine, Delisle, Newton, Reaumur and Rømer.

0 K (Kelvin) is absolute zero, (not something you want to be around to measure). The scale was created by Belfast born, Lord Kelvin.

The fahrenheit scale was first proposed back in 1724 by Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit. It is not commonly used in the UK any more but it is still used in the United States.

Although a lot of people in the UK still use the term centigrade, as we have here, back in 1948 (because of international confusion) it was agreed that we would all use Celsius. The scale was firstly created by Andres Celsius back in 1742, although in reverse.

Freezing points

If you raise the temperature of a substance above its freezing point, it will become a liquid. The pouring temperature will be slightly higher.

Liquids

  • Water = 0
  • Salt water (35 salinity) = -2

Waxes

  • Soy Container Wax = 46
  • Palm wax = 58
  • Parfin wax = 54
  • Soy Pillar Wax = 61
  • Beeswax = 62

Metals

  • Tin = 231
  • Cadmium = 321
  • Lead = 327
  • Zinc = 419
  • Antimony = 630
  • Aluminium = 660
  • Sliver = 961
  • Gold = 1064
  • Copper = 1084
  • Palladium = 1554
  • Platinum = 1772

Volume

A three dimensional measure of the space inside a container or the amount of a substance.

Volume converter

Metric To Imperial Conversion
cm3 inch3
m3 yard3
litre pint
litre gallon
Imperial To Metric Conversion
inch3 cm3
Floz ml
pint litre
gallon litre
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Imperial volumes

  • 8 fluid drachms = 1 fluid ounce
  • 5 fluid ounce = 1 gill
  • 20 fluid ounce = 1 pint
  • 2 pints = 1 quart
  • 8 pints = 1 gallon
  • 2 gallons = 1 peck
  • 4 pecks = 1 bushel

See the coopering guide for cask capacities

Imperial volume calculator

To work out the amount of liquid that can fit in a rectangular container, simple add the height, width and depth in inches to the form below. The result is rounded up if above .5:

inches
Height
Width Gallons
Depth

Area

The measure of an area is two dimensional, like a measure of land or the floor space at a fair. The surface area of a standard craft table of 6ft by 2ft 6 inches = 15 square feet.

Imperial areas

  • 144 inches = 1 square foot
  • 9 square feet = 1 square yard
  • 484 square yards = 1 square chain
  • 100 square chains = 1 square furlong
  • 4,840 square yards = 1 Acre
  • 640 acres = 1 square mile
  • 64 square furlong = 1 square mile

Metric areas

  • 10,000 centimetres = 1 square metre
  • 10,000 square metres = 1 square hectare

Weight converter

How heavy an object or substance is depends on its relative density. Lead and gold are dense and are therefore heavy, wax and wood are less dense and therefore not as heavy.

Metric To Imperial Conversion
milligram (mg) grain (gr)
gram (g) ounce (oz)
kilogram (kg) pound (lb)
tonne (t) ton (t)
Imperial to metric conversion
ounce gram (g)
pound (lb) kilogram (kg)
stone (st) kilogram (kg)
ton (t) tonne (t)
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Metric Weights

  • 1,000 milligrams = 1 gram
  • 1,000 grams = 1 kilogram
  • 1,000 kilograms = 1 tonne (metric ton)

Other imperial weight abbreviations:

  • Drachm = drc
  • Quarter = qrt
  • Hundredweight = cwt

Imperial Weights

  • 16 drams = 1 ounce
  • 16 ounces = 1 pound
  • 7 pounds = 1 clove
  • 14 pounds = 1 stone
  • 28 pounds = 1 tod
  • 112 pounds = 1 hundredweight
  • 364 pounds = 1 sack
  • 2240 pounds = 1 ton
  • 2 stones = 1 quarter
  • 4 quarters = 1 hundredweight
  • 20 hundredweight = 1 ton

Length

Length converter

It would be a shame to loose imperial lengths, as they are more human than metric. They are based on the size of part of the body like, hands, feet, palms which can be used whilst crafting.

Metric To Imperial Conversion
mm inches
cm inches
metres yards
km miles
Imperial To Metric Conversion
inches cm
feet metres
yards metres
miles km
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Imperial Lengths

  • 72 points = 1 inch
  • 12 lines = 1 inch
  • 6 picas = 1 inch
  • 3 inches = 1 palm
  • 4 inches = 1 hand
  • 9 inches = 1 span
  • 12 inches = 1 foot
  • 18 inches = 1 cubit
  • 2 cubits = 1 yard
  • 3 feet = 1 yard
  • 37 inches = 1 cloth-yard
  • 6 feet = 1 fathom
  • 40 yards = 1 bolt
  • 220 yards = 1 furlong
  • 8 furlongs = 1 mile
  • 1760 yards = 1 mile
  • 3 miles = 1 league