Weights and measures
Temperature, Length, Weight, Volume and Area
Weights and measures
Although you must use metric measurements in the England, Scotland or Wales (grams, kilograms, millilitres or litres), it is the law when selling package and loose goods, many people think in the older imperial system (ounces, pounds, inches and pints). Northern Ireland is different. The good news is that you can still buy milk, beer and cider in pints and if you deal in precious metals you can use troy ounces. If you want to include the imperial measurement on your packaging you can do but it needs to be less noticeable than the metric.
On this page you can convert all sorts on measurements from metric to imperial and back again. Enter the amount in the highlighted box and the click on the = sign to convert.
The temperature scales measure the heat present in a substance or object.
Five interesting temperature facts
- Sound moves slower at lower temperatures and faster at higher temperatures.
At -25°C sounds moved at just 315 metres per second but at +35°C
sounds move at 351 metres per second.
- Temperatures are not only measured in centigrade and Fahrenheit.
There are also the scales of Kelvin, Rankine, Delisle, Newton, Reaumur
- 0 K (Kelvin) is absolute zero, (not something you want to be around
to measure). The scale was created by Belfast born, Lord Kelvin.
- The Fahrenheit scale was first proposed back in 1724 by Daniel
Gabriel Fahrenheit. It is not commonly used in the UK any more but
it is still used in the United States.
- Although a lot of people in the UK still use the term centigrade,
as we have here, back in 1948 (because of international confusion)
it was agreed that we would all use Celsius. The scale was firstly
created by Andres Celsius back in 1742, although in reverse.
If you raise the temperature of a substance above its freezing point, it will become a liquid. The pouring temperature will be slightly higher.
- Water = 0
- Salt water (35 salinity) = -2
- Soy Container Wax = 46
- Palm wax = 58
- Paraffin wax = 54
- Soy Pillar Wax = 61
- Beeswax = 62
- Tin = 231
- Cadmium = 321
- Lead = 327
- Zinc = 419
- Antimony = 630
- Aluminium = 660
- Sliver = 961
- Gold = 1064
- Copper = 1084
- Palladium = 1554
- Platinum = 1772
A three-dimensional measure of the space inside a container or the amount of a substance.
Metric to Imperial volume conversions
Imperial to Metric volume conversions
- 8 fluid drachms = 1 fluid ounce (fl oz)
- 5 fluid ounce = 1 gill
- 20 fluid ounce = 1 pint (pt)
- 2 pints = 1 quart (qt)
- 8 pints = 1 gallon (gal)
- 2 gallons = 1 peck
- 4 pecks = 1 bushel
See the coopering guide for cask capacities
Imperial volume calculator
To work out the amount of liquid that can fit in a rectangular container, simply add the height, width and depth in inches to the form below. The result is in gallons and rounded up if above .5:
The measure of an area is two dimensional, like a measure of land or the floor space at a fair. The surface area of a standard craft table of 6ft by 2ft 6 inches = 15 square feet.
- 144 inches = 1 square foot
- 9 square feet = 1 square yard
- 484 square yards = 1 square chain
- 100 square chains = 1 square furlong
- 4,840 square yards = 1 Acre
- 640 acres = 1 square mile
- 64 square furlong = 1 square mile
- 10,000 centimetres = 1 square metre
- 10,000 square metres = 1 square hectare
How heavy an object or substance is, depends on its relative density. Lead and gold are dense and are therefore heavy, wax and wood are less dense and therefore not as heavy.
Metric to imperial weight conversions
Imperial to metric weight conversions
- 1,000 milligrams = 1 gram
- 1,000 grams = 1 kilogram
- 1,000 kilograms = 1 tonne (metric ton)
Other imperial weight abbreviations:
- Drachm = drc
- Quarter = qrt
- Hundredweight = cwt
- 16 drams = 1 ounce
- 16 ounces = 1 pound
- 7 pounds = 1 clove
- 14 pounds = 1 stone
- 28 pounds = 1 tod
- 112 pounds = 1 hundredweight
- 364 pounds = 1 sack
- 2240 pounds = 1 ton
- 2 stones = 1 quarter
- 4 quarters = 1 hundredweight
- 20 hundredweight = 1 ton
It would be a shame to lose imperial lengths, as they are more human than metric. They are based on the size of part of the body like, hands, feet, palms which can be used whilst crafting.
Metric to imperial length conversions
Imperial to metric length conversions
- 72 points = 1 inch
- 12 lines = 1 inch
- 6 picas = 1 inch
- 3 inches = 1 palm
- 4 inches = 1 hand
- 9 inches = 1 span
- 12 inches = 1 foot
- 18 inches = 1 cubit
- 2 cubits = 1 yard
- 3 feet = 1 yard
- 37 inches = 1 cloth-yard
- 6 feet = 1 fathom
- 40 yards = 1 bolt
- 220 yards = 1 furlong
- 8 furlongs = 1 mile
- 1760 yards = 1 mile
- 3 miles = 1 league