# Weights and Measures

## Temperature, Length, Weight, Volume and Area

Although you must use metric measurements in the England, Scotland or Wales (grams, kilograms, millilitres or litres), it is the law when selling package and loose goods, many people think in the older imperial system (ounces, pounds, inches and pints). Northern Ireland is different. The good news is that you can still buy milk, beer and cider in pints and if you deal in precious metals you can use troy ounces. If you want to include the imperial measurement on your packaging you can do but it needs to be less noticeable than the metric.

On this page you can convert all sorts on measurements from metric to imperial and back again. Enter the amount in the highlighted box and the click on the = sign to convert.

The temperature scales measure the heat present in a substance or object.

### Convert temperatures

#### Five interesting temperature facts

1. Sound moves slower at lower temperatures and faster at higher temperatures. At -25°C sounds moved at just 315 metres per second but at +35°C sounds move at 351 metres per second.
2. Temperatures are not only measured in centigrade and Fahrenheit. There are also the scales of Kelvin, Rankine, Delisle, Newton, Reaumur and Rømer.
3. 0 K (Kelvin) is absolute zero, (not something you want to be around to measure). The scale was created by Belfast born, Lord Kelvin.
4. The Fahrenheit scale was first proposed back in 1724 by Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit. It is not commonly used in the UK any more but it is still used in the United States.
5. Although a lot of people in the UK still use the term centigrade, as we have here, back in 1948 (because of international confusion) it was agreed that we would all use Celsius. The scale was firstly created by Andres Celsius back in 1742, although in reverse.

#### Freezing points

If you raise the temperature of a substance above its freezing point, it will become a liquid. The pouring temperature will be slightly higher.

#### Liquids

• Water = 0
• Salt water (35 salinity) = -2

#### Waxes

• Soy Container Wax = 46
• Palm wax = 58
• Paraffin wax = 54
• Soy Pillar Wax = 61
• Beeswax = 62

#### Metals

• Tin = 231
• Zinc = 419
• Antimony = 630
• Aluminium = 660
• Sliver = 961
• Gold = 1064
• Copper = 1084
• Platinum = 1772

A three-dimensional measure of the space inside a container or the amount of a substance.

### Metric to Imperial volume conversions

cubic centimetres to cubic inches
cubic metres to cubic yards
litres to pints
litres to gallons

### Imperial to Metric volume conversions

cubic inches to cubic centimetres
Fluid ounce (Fl.oz) to millilitre
Pints (pt) to Litres (lt)
Gallons to Litre

#### Imperial volumes

• 8 fluid drachms = 1 fluid ounce (fl oz)
• 5 fluid ounce = 1 gill
• 20 fluid ounce = 1 pint (pt)
• 2 pints = 1 quart (qt)
• 8 pints = 1 gallon (gal)
• 2 gallons = 1 peck
• 4 pecks = 1 bushel

See the coopering guide for cask capacities

#### Imperial volume calculator

To work out the amount of liquid that can fit in a rectangular container, simply add the height, width and depth in inches to the form below. The result is in gallons and rounded up if above .5:

The measure of an area is two dimensional, like a measure of land or the floor space at a fair. The surface area of a standard craft table of 6ft by 2ft 6 inches = 15 square feet.

#### Imperial areas

• 144 inches = 1 square foot
• 9 square feet = 1 square yard
• 484 square yards = 1 square chain
• 100 square chains = 1 square furlong
• 4,840 square yards = 1 Acre
• 640 acres = 1 square mile
• 64 square furlong = 1 square mile

#### Metric areas

• 10,000 centimetres = 1 square metre
• 10,000 square metres = 1 square hectare

How heavy an object or substance is, depends on its relative density. Lead and gold are dense and are therefore heavy, wax and wood are less dense and therefore not as heavy.

#### Metric Weights

• 1,000 milligrams = 1 gram
• 1,000 grams = 1 kilogram
• 1,000 kilograms = 1 tonne (metric ton)

#### Other imperial weight abbreviations:

• Drachm = drc
• Quarter = qrt
• Hundredweight = cwt

#### Imperial Weights

• 16 drams = 1 ounce
• 16 ounces = 1 pound
• 7 pounds = 1 clove
• 14 pounds = 1 stone
• 28 pounds = 1 tod
• 112 pounds = 1 hundredweight
• 364 pounds = 1 sack
• 2240 pounds = 1 ton
• 2 stones = 1 quarter
• 4 quarters = 1 hundredweight
• 20 hundredweight = 1 ton

It would be a shame to lose imperial lengths, as they are more human than metric. They are based on the size of part of the body like, hands, feet, palms which can be used whilst crafting.

#### Imperial Lengths

• 72 points = 1 inch
• 12 lines = 1 inch
• 6 picas = 1 inch
• 3 inches = 1 palm
• 4 inches = 1 hand
• 9 inches = 1 span
• 12 inches = 1 foot
• 18 inches = 1 cubit
• 2 cubits = 1 yard
• 3 feet = 1 yard
• 37 inches = 1 cloth-yard
• 6 feet = 1 fathom
• 40 yards = 1 bolt
• 220 yards = 1 furlong
• 8 furlongs = 1 mile
• 1760 yards = 1 mile
• 3 miles = 1 league