Edinburgh is in Scotland. It has a population of around 476,000 and covers approximately 26,000 hectares. Here is a list of nearby or neighbouring counties: East Lothian, Fife, Midlothian, West Lothian.
Located on the Firth of Forth, Edinburgh (called Dun Eideann in Scottish Gaelic) is the capital city of Scotland. Archaeologists have found evidence of human settlement in the area dating back to the Bronze Age. From a prehistoric hill fort, Edinburgh grew around the castle into the largest trading town in Scotland, becoming the capital during the 15th century and after London is today the second largest financial centre in Britain. The city played an essential role in the Scottish Enlightenment and has been home to many famous writers including Sir Walter Scott, Robert Louis Stevenson, Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, Muriel Spark, J. K. Rowling, and Irvine Welsh. Other famous people from Edinburgh include scientists and engineers such as Alexander Graham Bell, Charles Darwin and James Clerk Maxwell, the economist Adam Smith, as well as a number of actors, musicians and the artists Sir Henry Raeburn, Sir David Wilkie, Allan Ramsay and Eduardo Paolozzi. There are many educational institutions in the city, including the University of Edinburgh which was founded in 1583.
Edinburgh Castle is perhaps the most famous symbol of Scotland and attracts more than a million visitors each year. Situated at the top of Castle Rock, it dominates the city skyline. Some parts of the castle date back to the 12th century, though most of the buildings are of later construction, after a 16th century siege caused considerable destruction to the medieval defences. As well as having a military role, Edinburgh Castle was also a home to the Royalty of Scotland. Within its walls, Mary Queen of Scots gave birth to James VI, who became King of Scotland and later also King James I of England and Ireland, with the Union of the Crowns in 1603. Shared monarchy remained until the Acts of Union in 1707 created the Parliament of Great Britain. Visitors to the castle can see the finely decorated and furnished Royal Palace and the Great Hall, where Scottish kings and queens held court and their subjects pledged their allegiance. The castle is also home to the National War Museum of Scotland, the Scottish National War Memorial, the crown jewels and since it was returned in 1996, the Stone of Destiny (Stone of Scone).
Each year between July and September, Edinburgh International Festival takes place, running a range of events. Held during August, the Edinburgh Festival Fringe has become the largest arts festival in the world and plays host to thousands of performers and over a million visitors. People come to watch a huge variety of drama, performing arts and comedy shows held at many different venues. Other events include the Edinburgh Art Festival, Book Festival, Military Tattoo, Science Festival and a number of music festivals. Aside from the festival season, throughout the year there are theatres where audiences can watch a wide variety of shows and concerts, as well as an active contemporary music scene. The city also has a number of museums and galleries, including the Scottish National Gallery which has a large fine art collection with works by artists such as Sandro Botticelli, Paul Cezanne, John Constable, Edgar Degas, Thomas Gainsborough, Vincent van Gogh, El Greco, Claude Monet, Rembrandt, and JMW Turner. The Scottish National Gallery of Modern Art has a collection of art by artists including Francis Bacon, Georges Braque, Henri Matisse and Pablo Picasso, as well as paintings by Scottish artists. The Fruitmarket Gallery shows work by contemporary established and emerging artists and there are also many other smaller galleries in the city.
(Born 1871 in Edinburgh in Edinburgh), Painting
Sholto Johnstone Douglas, Scottish artist, painted portraits and landscapes.
A rather famous Scottish writer. Perhaps best known for crime fiction novels about a detective named, Sherlock Holmes. He was a prolific writer of fiction, nonfiction, poetry, historical novels and plays.
(Born 1832 in Edinburgh in Edinburgh), Painting
Sir William Quiller Orchardson, Scottish painter, was known for his paintings of historic and domestic scenes.
(Born 1813 in Edinburgh), Sculpture
A Scottish sculptor, who was commission for many public monuments for St Pauls, Westminster Abbey and the Houses of Parliament.
(Born 1756 in Stockbridge in Edinburgh), Painting
Scottish portrait artist. Most famous for his portrait of Sir John Sinclair.