Stumpwork is a sewing technique, also known as raised embroidery or 3D embroidery, where the stitches are made in such a way that they create a three-dimensional effect on the surface of the material. The stitching is layered and elevated, giving the image a more prominent and textured appearance compared to traditional flat embroidery. This technique is used to add depth and dimension to designs, making them stand out and giving them a unique look. 3D embroidery is commonly used in the creation of decorative items such as clothing, accessories, and home goods.

Stumpwork is a type of embroidery that originated in the 16th century and is characterized by its raised, three-dimensional elements. The main techniques used in this style of embroidery include:

Pad Stitching: A method of building up layers of fabric to create a raised design.

Wire Work: The use of wire to create raised and sculpted elements, such as stems and branches.

Wrapped Stitches: The wrapping of thread around a raised structure to create a textured effect.

Looped Stitches: The creation of loops of thread to add texture and depth to a design.

Stumpwork Examples: Some popular examples of stumpwork designs include floral arrangements, insects, animals, and miniature scenes. These designs were often used to decorate clothing, household linens, and furnishings. In the UK, stumpwork was particularly popular in the counties of Kent and Sussex, where it was used to decorate gloves, petticoats, and wall hangings.