(Born 1965, Bristol)
Controversial British artist and sculptor.
One of the great things about sculpture is that the materials used often survive for extremely long periods of time. This means that pieces have been found that date back tens of thousands of years.
The sculpture in Europe is influenced by and shaped by its past. Starting with Ancient, Classical and Hellenistic Greek works and then moving through the years, with Roman, Byzantine, Romanesque, Gothic, Renaissance, Mannerist, Rococo, Baroque, Neo-Classical and Modernism. This wealth of European sculptural heritage inspires modern day sculptors in the UK.
Both the Gothic and Renaissance sculptural periods were dominated with works for churches and cathedrals.
Stone carving tools will include, a variety of chisels and hammers, sharpening stones, sandbag and magnifying glasses for detailed work.
For clay sculptors will use wire end, hardwood, metal and plastic modelling tools, callipers, palettes and scrapers.
Making moulds out of plaster or similar materials you would need a mixing bowl, mould dividing skim, carving chisel, key knife, plaster rasps and mould makers knife.
If you were carving wood then chisels and gouges, skews, parting tools, fish tails, short and long bents and a set of wood carving knives would be used. As well as an adze, sharpeners and mallets.
The materials used to create sculptural works is many and varied, as highlighted in the techniques section.
A very popular metal for both ancient and modern sculpture is Bronze, because as an alloy of mostly copper mixed with other metals usually tin, it is harder than copper on its own. Steel is another popular material as are precious metals like silver and gold.
People working with stone will often choose granite, which is a rock made up of Biotite, Feldspar and Quartz, chosen for its strength. Marble and other stones are also popular.
The volume of materials available to a sculptor is very varied, glass, plastics, woods, concrete, bricks, plaster, fibreglass, paper, ceramics and clays, findings and the list goes on.
There are four main techniques employed by sculptors. One is the subtractive method, where material is removed from a larger piece to create the relief or statue. Another is casting, where a mould is made and a liquid is poured and dried, to create the shape. There is also, the modelling techniques where material are shaped and placed together. There is also stamping, once the stamp is made, multiple copies can be created.
Often the technique is forced upon the sculptor by the materials they are working with. Wood and stone for example lends themselves to carving, whilst metals are cast or stamped and clay is usually modeled.
To make it as a sculptor you are going to need a certain amount of natural talent and the willingness to work hard. Learning your art is important, so education whether self taught or in college is going to be key. You can dip your toe in by taking a course or two.
Find your own style, work within your own niche, find and work with your chosen materials rather than spreading your skills too thinly.
Try to learn the principals of sculpture first before you focus on the craft of making your pieces.
As well as thinking about commissions for larger works, the film and other industries have roles for sculptors.
If you are already an accomplished sculptor you may like to take a look at the the Royal British Society of Sculptors.
As well as going into the town centers to see large architectural pieces, it is a good idea visit your local art galleries. If you are in London then visit the galleries, they are free and very inspiring. In particular, the Tate Modern for modernism and Victoria and Albert for classical pieces. Alternatively, there is the Saatchi Gallery or the Wallace collection.
The world has over time been sculpted by nature and is a three dimensional space to explore and gain inspiration from.
(Born 1965, Bristol)
Controversial British artist and sculptor.
(Born 1924 in New Malden, London)
Caro was a modernist sculptor who found success in the 1950s. He is also accredited with being the first person to remove the plinth, allowing viewers to be more connected with his work.
(Born 1917 in Amersham, Buckinghamshire)
Known as having a distinguished career as a sculptress.
(Born 1911 in Chester, Cheshire)
As a noted sculptor, Austin created pieces called The Argument, Ring and Mute 2. You may see his work at the Yorkshire Sculpture Park.
(Born 1898 in Castleford, West Yorkshire)
Henry Moore, British sculptor and artist, is known for monumental bronze sculptures, which are now displayed around the world as public works of art. If you visit Scotney Castle (Designed by Anthony Salvin) in Kent, you can see one of his works in the gardens.
(Born 1894, Isle of Man)
He is best known for his scultural relief work on the ANZAC War Memorial in Sydney.
(Born 1893 in Montrose, Angus)
He focused his talent on the working class of his home town.
(Born 1888 in Muckhart, Clackmannanshire)
George Henry Paulin was a notable Scottish sculptor and artist of the 20th century. Among others he created the statue of Pavlova in the Garden of Remembrance, London and the statue of Lord Lister in Kevinggrove Park in Glasgow.
(Born 1882 in Steyning, West Sussex)
A now controversial character, best known for the stone carving of Ariel Between Wisdom and Gaiety at Broadcasting House in London and North and South Wind on the Grade 1 listed 55 Broadway that overlooks St James Park.
(Born 1881 in Newton Abbott, Devon)
John Angel was particularly known for his ecclesiastical sculptures. In 1919 he was elected to the Royal Society of British Sculptors.
(Born 1876 in Haverfordwest, Pembrokeshire)
Gwendolen Mary John, Welsh artist, was known for her portrait work and also modelled for sculptor Auguste Rodin.
(Born 1872 in Brighton, East Sussex)
Aubrey Beardsley, British artist, helped to develop the Art Nouveau and poster styles.
(Born 1860 in Canton, Cardiff)
An excellent sculptor of public monuments like the statue of David Lloyd George in Caernarfon.
(Born 1853 in Sheffield, South Yorkshire)
As well as sculptor, Creswick also worked in metal and taught art. He is well know for his bust of the philanthropist John Ruskin.
(Born 1846 in Chester, Cheshire)
The majority of his artwork was in illustration and he greatly influenced the illustration of childrens books. He also illustrated novels and books on foreign travel and exhibited sculpture and oil and watercolour paintings in galleries, including the Royal Acadamy.
(Born 1843 in Bradfield, Berkshire)
His best known sculptural works include The Falconer (famously the falcon from the original statue was stolen in the 1960s) and The Maiwand Lion which is a war memorial in Forbury Gardens, Reading (known locally as Forbury Lions).
(Born 1830 in Scarborough, North Yorkshire)
Sir Frederic Leighton, English artist and sculptor, is best known for his paintings of historical and classical scenes.
(Born 1825 in Hadliegh, Suffolk)
Thomas Woolner, English sculptor and poet, RA. He was a member of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood.
(Born 1817 in Marylebone, London)
George Frederic Watts, English artist and sculptor, is best known for his for his allegorical works.
(Born 1815 in Banff, Aberdeenshire)
Brodie created many portrait busts of the celebrities of his time.
(Born 1813, Edinburgh)
A Scottish sculptor, who was commission for many public monuments for St Pauls, Westminster Abbey and the Houses of Parliament.
(Born 1804 in Aberdeen, Aberdeenshire)
Sir John Robert Steell, Scottish sculptor, is best known piece of work is the statue of Sir Walter Scott.
(Born 1771 in Paisley, Renfrewshire)
A self-taught sculpture who created a miniature of the Parthanon.